Solar energy system

General Information
Solar System in India
India is both densely populated and has high solar insulation, providing an ideal combination for solar power in India. Much of the country does not have an electrical grid, so one of the first applications of solar power has been for water pumping, to begin replacing India's four to five million diesel powered water pumps, each consuming about 3.5 kilowatts, and off-grid lighting. Some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 kmĀ² area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 gigawatts.
India's power sector has a total installed capacity of approximately 1, 46,753 Megawatt (MW) of which 54% is coal-based, 25% hydro, 8% is renewable and the balance is the gas and nuclear-based. Power shortages are estimated at about 11% of total energy and 15% of peak capacity requirements and are likely to increase in the coming years. In the next 10 years, another 10,000 MW of capacity and investment of about Rs. 24 lakh crore are required.
Government Authorities
Development of alternate energy has been part of India's strategy for expanding energy supply and meeting decentralized energy needs of the rural sector. The strategy is administered through India's Ministry of New Renewable Energy (MNRE), Energy development agencies in the various States, and the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA).
Present Status
As a result of the efforts made during the past quarter century, a number of devices have been developed and have become commercially viable. These include Solar Water Heaters, Solar Cookers, Solar Lanterns, Solar Street Lights, Solar Water Pumps.
India has started wide Solar Photovoltaic Program for about 2 decades and has installed an aggregate 1.3 million systems. However, now the focus of the 11th year plan is on the grid connected power generation. India's Integrated Rural Energy Program using Solar energy had served 300 districts and around 2,300 villages.
Environmental Costs:
Another concern area is installing Solar cells on the land area. The large amount of land required for utility-scale Solar power plants - approximately one square kilometer for every 20-60 MW generated - poses an additional problem in India. Instead, Solar energy in particular requires unique, massive applications in the agricultural sector, where farmers need electricity exclusively in the daytime. This could be the primary demand driver for Solar energy in India.

Solar water heating
Solar water heating is water heated by the use of solar energy in India. Solar heating systems are generally composed of solar thermal collectors, a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage. The system .....