History of Architecture

One definition of a great civilization is the magnificence of its architectural legacy, and India is surely among the foremost. The India country is dotted with the remains of ages gone by, many world famous like the TajMahal and Qutab Minar, and some still cloaked in obscurity, off the tourist circuit, waiting to be 'discovered', but architectural gems nevertheless. To begin, it should be pointed out that in the large volume of published work on world architecture, there is comparatively little on India.

During the 12th century, while the rest of Europe witnessed the erection of large, architecturally complex Romanesque buildings, Irish building design remained conservative. Although the highly elaborate Cormac's chapel was probably responsible for the introduction of elements of the style to Ireland, it is not typical of Irish Romanesque. Irish churches remained simple in plan, enlarged only by the addition of a chancel to the traditional single cell structure. The round arched doors, chancel arches, and windows were emphasized by the application of low‐relief sculpture, using a combination of indigenous and continentally inspired motifs, as at the Nuns' church, Clonmacnoise.
The architecture of India is rooted in its history in India, culture and religion Indian architecture progressed with time and assimilated the many influences that came as a result of India's global discourse with other regions of the world throughout its millennia-old past. The architectural methods practiced in India are a result of examination and implementation of its established building traditions and outside cultural interactions.
India's urban civilization is traceable to Mohenjodaro and Harappa, now in Pakistan. From then on, Indian architecture and civil engineering continued to develop, and was manifestated temples, palaces and forts across the Indian subcontinent and neighbouring regions. Architecture and civil engineering was known as sthapatya-kala, literally "the art of constructing".
During the Kushan Empire and Mauryan Empire, Indian architecture and civil engineering reached regions like Baluchistan and Afghanistan. Statues of Buddha were cut out, covering entire mountain cliffs, like in Buddhas of Bamyan, Afghanistan. Over a period of time, ancient Indian art of construction blended with Greek styles and spread to Central Asia.
Indian architecture encompasses a wide variety of geographically and historically spread structures, and was transformed by the history of the Indian subcontinent. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that, although it is difficult to identify a single representative style, nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. The diversity of Indian culture is represented in its architecture. It is a blend of ancient and varied native traditions, with building types, forms and technologies from West and Central Asia, as well as Europe. It includes the architecture of various dynasties, such as Hoysala architecture, Vijayanagara Architecture and Western Chalukya Architecture.
Architectural styles range from Hindu temple architecture to Islamic architecture to western classical architecture to modern and post-modern architecture.
The temples of Aihole and Pattadakal are the earliest known examples of Hindu temples. There are numerous Hindu as well as Buddhist temples that are known as excellent examples of Indian rock-cut architecture. The Church of St. Anne which is cast in the Indian Baroque Architectural style under the expert orientation of the most eminent architects of the time. It is a prime example of the blending of traditional Indian styles with western European architectural styles.
Independence woke us to a changed situation. "Time had moved on. In place of religion or royal concern with architectural immortality, this situation demanded attention to those problems that had so far been ruthlessly neglected. The ordinary man, his environment and needs became the centre of attention. Demand for low cost housing became urgent.
Indian architecture witnessed a revolution when the Punjab government engaged Le Corbusier to design the new city of Chandigarh. Built in three stages, Corbusier divided the city into three sections. The 'head' consisted of political, bureaucratic and judicial buildings, the administrative parts of the city. The 'body' housed the university and residential complexes in the heart of the city. The 'feet' consisted of industrial sectors and the railway station. Apart from the initial layout of the city, Corbusier also designed several buildings in Chandigarh. The High Court building has a sloping roof, supported by concrete walls which allow air to pass through them. The Assembly is a squarish structure topped with a huge industrial chimney while the Secretariat is made up of hundreds of rooms with an airy exterior.
Now people are using architecture design in there house, home and any other property to look better.